Fulgence Kayishema is charged by the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) with genocide or complicity in genocide in the alternative, conspiracy to commit genocide and extermination (crimes against humanity). According to the indictment dated 5 July 2001, Kayishema was Inspector of police in Kivumu commune in the Kibuye préfecture.
Kayishema is charged with having participated in the massacre of Tutsis across Kibuye, most notoriously the Nyange Parish massacre, in which executed a plan for the mass killing of Tutsi refugees gathered in the parish, along with convicted génocidaire and former priest, Athanase Seromba. The prosecution alleges that, among other acts, Fulgence Kayishema ordered the killing of Tutsis inside the parish, and brought fuel for use by the Interahamwe militia to burn down the parish. More than 2000 civilians are believed to have died in this attack alone.
On 11 June 2007, the prosecution filed a motion for transferral of the case to the national jurisdiction of Rwanda, as part of the Tribunal’s completion strategy as defined by the UN Security Council in Resolution 1503 (2003). The motion was the first ever by the prosecution for transferral. On 16 December 2008, Trial Chamber III of the ICTR denied the request citing fair trial concerns. At present Fulgence Kayishema remains at large.