Protais Mpiranya was indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda on 25 September 2002. He is charged with genocide, conspiracy to commit genocide, complicity in genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. Mpiranya remains at large and is one of the most wanted men by the Tribunal.
During the genocide in 1994, Protais Mpiranya was Commander of the Presidential Guard Battalion within the Rwandan Army and exercised authority over various units of this Battalion. Forces under his command are alleged to have been responsible for the sexual assault and murder of Agathe Uwilingiyimana, former Rwandan Prime Minister, as well as the brutal murder of ten Belgian UNAMIR soldiers. Alongside powerful figures such as convicted génocidaire, Théoneste Bagosora, Mpiranya is accused of participating in the planning, preparation and execution of a plan to exterminate the Tutsi population of Rwanda. He is charged by way of his personal and superior responsibility for the crimes alleged.