Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. USA)

Date of Judgment:  27 June 1986

On 9 April 1984, Nicaragua filed an Application instituting proceedings against the United States of America concerning a dispute relating to responsibility for military and paramilitary activities in and against Nicaragua. One of the measures required the United States to immediately cease and refrain from any action restricting access to Nicaraguan ports, and, in particular, the laying of mines. On 18 January 1985, the United States announced that it intended not to participate in any further proceedings relating to this case.

In its Judgment of 27 June 1986, the Court rejected the justification of collective self-defence advanced by the United States and stated that it had violated the obligations imposed by customary international law not to intervene in the affairs of another State. The Court also found that the United States had violated certain obligations arising from a bilateral Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation of 1956 and that it must make reparation for all injury caused. The amount of that reparation was to be fixed in subsequent proceedings. In March 1988, the United States maintained its refusal to take part in the case. In September 1991, Nicaragua informed the Court that it did not wish to continue the proceedings. The case was removed from the Court’s List.

"You can run but you can't hide" (K. Highet)Nicaragua and the United States (D.W. Greig)
Research / Publications
"Nicaragua is dead, long live Nicaragua" (C. Stahn)A framework for evaluating the legality of the US intervention in Nicaragua (K.W. Quigley)Appraisals of the ICJ's Decision: Nicaragua v. United States (H.G. Maier)Case concerning military and paramilitary activities in and against Nicaragua (C.E. Martinez)Compulsory jurisdiction and the use of force as a legal issue (H. Hohmann & P.J.I.M. Waart)From Nuremberg to The Hague (P.W. Kahn)Has the I.C.J. exceeded its jurisdiction in the Nicaragua Case? (M.K. Nawaz)Holding America to its own best standards (P.S. Reichler)Humanitarian intervention and the 1986 ICJ Nicaragua/USA Judgement (M.B. Casino)Law and power: some reflections on Nicaragua, USA and the ICJ (T. Lieverman)Litigation strategy at the International Court (T.D. Gill)Military and paramilitary activities in and against Nicaragua (D.H.N. Johnson)Military and paramilitary activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States) (M.B. Howard)Nicaragua v. United States (Wikipedia)Nicaragua v. United States as a precedent (F.L. Kirgis)Nicaragua v. United States: a look at the facts (R.F. Turner)Nicaragua v. US: the power of the ICJ to indicate interim measures in political disputes (N.M. Tama)Nicaragua, the United States and the World Court (A. Chayes)Not condemned to repetition: the United States and Nicaragua (R.A. Pastor)Peace and the World Court: a comment on the Paramilitary Activities Case (R.F. Turner)Termination of declarations under the optional clause (G.F. Jones)The International Court and the maintenance of peace and security (B.S. Chimni)The Nicaragua Case (J.J. Quintana)The use and abuse of the International Court of Justice (C. Gray)U.S. covert operations against Nicaragua and their legality (J.P. Rowles)Who tolled the Death-bell for Compulsory Jurisdiction? (P. Kooijmans)
Research/ Court Documents
Nicaragua Case: Dissenting opinion of Judge Oda, 27-6-1986Nicaragua Case: Dissenting opinion of Judge Schwebel, 10-5-1984Nicaragua Case: Dissenting opinion of Judge Schwebel, 26-11-1984Nicaragua Case: Dissenting opinion of Judge Schwebel, 27-6-1986Nicaragua Case: Dissenting opinion of Judge Schwebel, 4-10-1984Nicaragua Case: Dissenting opinion of Judge Sir Robert Jennings, 27-6-1986Nicaragua Case: Judgment (Jurisdiction and Admissibility), 26-11-1984Nicaragua Case: Judgment (Merits), 27-6-1986Nicaragua Case: Order of 10 May 1984Nicaragua Case: Order of 14 May 1984Nicaragua Case: Order of 18 November 1987Nicaragua Case: Order of 22 January 1985Nicaragua Case: Order of 26 September 1991Nicaragua Case: Order of 4 October 1984Nicaragua Case: Separate opinion of Judge Ago, 26-11-1984 (translation)Nicaragua Case: Separate opinion of Judge Ago, 27-6-1986Nicaragua Case: Separate opinion of Judge Bedjaoui, 4-10-1984 (translation)Nicaragua Case: Separate opinion of Judge Elias, 27-6-1986Nicaragua Case: Separate opinion of Judge Lachs, 27-6-1986Nicaragua Case: Separate opinion of Judge Mosler, 26-11-1984Nicaragua Case: Separate opinion of Judge Nagendra Singh, 26-11-1984Nicaragua Case: Separate opinion of Judge Nagendra Singh, 27-6-1986Nicaragua Case: Separate opinion of Judge Nagendra Singh, 4-10-1984Nicaragua Case: Separate opinion of Judge Ni, 27-6-1986Nicaragua Case: Separate opinion of Judge Oda, 26-11-1984Nicaragua Case: Separate opinion of Judge Oda, 4-10-1984Nicaragua Case: Separate opinion of Judge Ruda et al., 4-10-1984Nicaragua Case: Separate opinion of Judge Ruda, 26-11-1984Nicaragua Case: Separate opinion of Judge Ruda, 27-6-1986Nicaragua Case: Separate opinion of Judge Sette-Cama, 27-6-1986Nicaragua Case: Separate opinion of Judge Sir Robert Jennings, 26-11-1984Nicaragua Case: Separate opinion of Judges Mosler and Jennings, 10-5-1984Nicaragua Case: Summary of the Judgment of 26 November 1984Nicaragua Case: Summary of the Judgment of 27 June 1986Nicaragua Case: Summary of the Order of 10 May 1984Nicaragua Case: Summary of the Order of 4 October 1984
Research/ miscellaneous (Research Document)
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